托福TPO真题——TPO 18 阅读


TPO 18 Passage1
Industrialization in the Netherlands and Scandinavia

While some European countries, such as England and Germany, began to industrializes in the eighteenth century, the Netherlands and the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden developed later.(A) All four of these countries lagged considerably behind in the early nineteenth century. (B) However, they industrialized rapidly in the second half of the century, especially in the last two or three decades. (C) In view of their later start and their lack of coal—undoubtedly the main reason they were not among the early industrializes—it is important to understand the sources of their success. (D)



All had small populations. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Denmark and Norway had fewer than 1 million people, while Sweden and the Netherlands had fewer than 2.5 million inhabitants. All exhibited moderate growth rates in the course of the century (Denmark the highest and Sweden the lowest), but all more than doubled in population by 1900. Density varied greatly. The Netherlands had one of the highest population densities in Europe, whereas Norway and Sweden had the lowest Denmark was in between but closer to the Netherlands.



Considering human capital as a characteristic of the population, however, all four countries were advantaged by the large percentages of their populations who could read and write. In both 1850 and 1914, the Scandinavian countries had the highest literacy rates in Europe, or in the world, and the Netherlands was well above the European average. This fact was of enormous value in helping the national economies find their niches in the evolving currents of the international economy.



Location was an important factor for all four countries. All had immediate access to the sea, and this had important implications for a significant international resource, fish, as well as for cheap transport, merchant marines, and the shipbuilding industry. Each took advantage of these opportunities in its own way. The people of the Netherlands, with a long tradition of fisheries and mercantile shipping, had difficulty in developing good harbors suitable for steamships: eventually they did so at Rotterdam and Amsterdam, with 【exceptional】 results for transit trade with Germany and central Europe and for the processing of overseas foodstuffs and raw materials (sugar, tobacco, chocolate, grain, and eventually oil). Denmark also had an admirable commercial history, particularly with respect to traffic through the Sound (the strait separating Denmark and Sweden). In 1857, in return for a payment of 63 million kronor from other commercial nations, Denmark 【abolished】 the Sound toll dues the fees it had collected since 1497 for the use of the Sound. This, along with other policy shifts toward free trade, resulted in a significant increase in traffic through the Sound and in the port of Copenhagen.

地理位置对于这四个国家来说,同样是一个非常重要的因素。这四个国家都紧邻海洋,而且这样的地理位置对于国际资源,渔业以及价格低廉的运输、海上商运以及船舶工业有重要的影响。这四个国家因势利导,很好地利用了各自的优势。有着悠久渔业和航运业历史的荷兰人在建造可以停泊蒸汽轮船的港口时遇到了困难。最终,他们在鹿特丹和阿姆斯特丹成功建造了港口,在与德国和中欧的转口贸易以及海外食品和原材料(糖、烟草、巧克力、粮食和  油)加工处理方面取得了非凡的成果。丹麦同样有着辉煌的贸易史,特别是在松德海峡(隔开丹麦和瑞典的海峡)的海上交通上。在1857年,一些贸易国家向丹麦支付了6 300万克朗 ,作为交换,丹麦废止了自1497年以来在松德海峡征收的通行费。这一举措与其他自由贸易政策相辅相成,使得途径松德海峡和哥本哈根港口的贸易额大增。


The political institutions of the four countries posed no significant barriers to industrialization or economic growth. The nineteenth century passed relatively peacefully for these countries, with 【progressive】 democratization taking place in all of them. They were reasonably well governed, without notable corruption or grandiose state projects, although in all of them the government gave some aid to railways, and in Sweden the state built the main lines. As small countries dependent on foreign markets, they followed a liberal trade policy in the main, though 【a protectionist movement developed in Sweden】. In Denmark and Sweden agricultural reforms took place gradually from the late eighteenth century through the first half of the nineteenth, resulting in a new class of peasant landowners with a definite market orientation.



【The key factor in the success of these countries (along with high literacy, which contributed to it) was their ability to adapt to the international division of labor determined by the early industrializes and to stake out areas of specialization in international markets for which they were especially well suited】. This meant a great dependence on international commerce, which had notorious fluctuations; but it also meant high returns to those factors of production that were fortunate enough to be well placed in times of prosperity. In Sweden exports accounted for 18 percent of the national income in 1870, and in 1913, 22 percent of a much larger national income. In the early twentieth century, Denmark exported 63 percent of its agricultural production: butter, pork products, and eggs. It exported 80 percent of its butter, almost all to Great Britain, where it accounted for 40 percent of British butter imports.

好勒~ 这就是今天TPO
18 Passage1 计划的内容

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