Day41 【晨读团】学习资料-你想要的都在这里




Fifty-four percent of the world's population lives live in our cities. In developing countries, one third of that population is are living in slums【住在贫民窟】. Seventy-five percent of global energy consumption occurs in our cities, and 80 percent of gas emissions that cause global warming come from our cities.


  1.  【两处语法错误】the world's population: 世界人口,population在这里是可数名词,就用单数形式,意思是“(某一地区的)全体居民” (类似的:the local population 当地人口;the urban population 城市人口;the rural population 农村人口,全都不加s)后边要接复数形式的动词:字典例句:Sixty percent of the world's population live【动词原形】 in areas that are at risk from sea-level rises. 世界人口的60%居住在受海平面上升威胁的地区所以,这里,演讲者(毕竟英文并不是母语呀!)出现了一个语法错误。Fifty-four percent of the world's population  lives live in our cities. 后边那个同理:one third of that population is are living in slums
  2. 【固定搭配】In developing countries:在发展中国家。发达国家 = developed countries
  3. 【分数的表达】one third = 3分之1(1/3)所以,分数的表达形式是:分子就用普通的数词,分母要用序数词。例如:three【普通数词】 fourth【序数词】 = 3/4  序数词就是:first, second, third, fourth, fifth... (就这样-th下去,一直到twentieth然后是twenty-first, twenty-second, twenty-third, twenty-fourth再-th下去,到thrity再循环) 不过:1/2真的很少说one second哈!一般咱们会说a half = 一半~


So things that you and I might think about as global problems, like climate change, the energy crisis or poverty, are really, in many ways, city problems. 


1. 【环境问题】gas emissions that cause global warming:造成全球变暖的气体排放(其实,排放的气体就是【温室气体,greenhouse gas】

典型的温室气体包括:二氧化碳Carbon dioxide (CO2)-所以推荐少开私家车,多乘公共交通/购买新能源汽车;甲烷 Methane (CH4)-所以推荐少吃牛肉,少吃快餐和 二氧化氮Nitrous oxide (N2O) -所以推荐少开车哦!
1. 独立写作:Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: The environmental issue is too complex to be handled by the individual.

2. 独立口语:Please give your suggestions on saving our planet since we are facing serious environmental problems.
2. 【环境问题】global warming【全球变暖】climate change【气候变化】Energy Crisis【能源危机】全球变暖仅指地球表面温度上升,而气候变化包括气候变暖以及升温的“副作用”,如极端天气气候事件。换句话说,全球变暖是人为因素导致气候变化的一种症状。而能源危机:这既是环境问题,也是经济问题。一国政府支持发展新能源技术,不仅仅是对治理环境有利,也有利于国家的经济市场的稳定,甚至可能关乎国家安全。

独立写作:What is the most important action for the government to take for the protection of environmental problems?

1. Fund researches on new energy sources such as solar and wind power. 

2. Protect forests and natural wildlife species

3. Pass and enforce laws to reduce the pollution

The financial support on the development of new energy resources from the government 【改写Statement的表达】is not only conducive to environmental protection but also essential to the stability of a country's economy and may even determine a country’s security.

论证片段: Our country currentlyrelies heavily on coal, gasoline, and natural gas for its energy. However, all of these present commonly used fuels are non-renewable, which means they draw on finite resources that will eventuallydwindleEven worse, modern people are consuming fossil fuels atan unprecedentedly fast paceAs a result, traditional fuel will inevitably become too expensive or too environmentally damaging to acquire in the near future. In contrast, the assorted types of renewable energy resources - such as wind and solar energy - are constantly replenished and will neverrun out.





例如这道题目:Some people say that we should use clean energy to protect the environment, while others say that we should use traditional energy sources such as coal and oil because they are less expensive. What is your opinion? 这题目,举例子,怎么举???你是不是就只知道有:太阳能和风能?还不知道用英语说?哪!答案来啦!

A. 太阳能 Solar Energy/ Sunlight 装太阳能板可以收集(电影《火星救援》里边,男主能活下来就全靠它了!) It can be used directly for heating and lighting homes and other buildings, for generating electricity, and for hot water heating, solar cooling, and a variety of commercial and industrial uses.

B. 风能 Wind Energy 得去风大的地方 Its energy  is captured with wind turbines

C. 水力发电 Hydroelectric Power 其实就是势能转化成其他能的过程。 Winds and the sun's heat cause water to evaporate. When this water vapor turns into rain or snow and flows downhill into rivers or streams, its energy can be captured using hydroelectric power.

D. 生物能 Bioenergy 其实用的是“Biomass” Sunlight causes plants to grow. The organic matter that makes up those plants is known as biomass. Biomass can be used to produce electricity, transportation fuels, or chemicals. The use of biomass for any of these purposes is called bioenergy.

E. 氢能 Hydrogen Energy 储量最充足的能源!不过它通常不会单独存在,而是跟O2构成H2O,因为“水”是共价键——相当稳定。所以,想要提取氢能,需要耗费的能量也会很多,所以不易获得。(不过,电影《火星救援》里边,达蒙帅锅也给我们示范了一下,要怎么提取氢能——当心别炸了就行!)It can be found in many organic compounds, as well as water. It's the most abundant element on the Earth.

F. 地热能 Geothermal Energy 是由地壳抽取的天然热能,这种能量来自地球内部的熔岩,并以热力形式存在,是引致火山爆发及地震的能量——听上去很高逼格吧?其实,你也用过!比如:泡温泉的时候~人们早在石器时代就开始用地热能啦! It taps the Earth's internal heat for a variety of uses, including electric power production, and the heating and cooling of buildings.

G. 海洋能 Ocean Energy 依附在海水中的可再生能源。海水,是吧,那必须是量很可再生。但问题就是大型项目可能会破坏自然水流、潮汐和生态系统,这个不好说会不会对环境产生危害。 It comes from a number of sources. In addition to tidal energy, there's the energy of the ocean's waves, which are driven by both the tides and the winds. The sun also warms the surface of the ocean more than the ocean depths, creating a temperature difference that can be used as an energy source. All these forms of ocean energy can be used to produce electricity.
3. 【插入语】are really, in many ways, city problems.  中间这个【,in many ways,】前后都有逗号,是一个插入语。意思就是“在很多方面,所谓的全球问题,其实都是全球城市的问题”


城市,要如何解决自己的问题?They will not be solved unless people who live in cities, like most of us, actually start doing a better job, because right now, we are not doing a very good one. And that becomes very clear when we look into three aspects of city life: first, our citizens' willingness to engage with democratic institutions; second, our cities' ability to really include all of their residents; and lastly, our own ability to live fulfilling and happy lives.


  1. 【一些语法点】They will not be solved unless people who【必须用who作关系代词,因为前面的先行词是people,是人,所以不能用which/that】 live in cities, like most of us,【前后都是逗号,插入语】 actually start doing【start + doing sth.; begin + to do sth.】 a better job【do a better job做得更好】, because right now【right now目前 = currently】, we are not doing a very good one.
  2. 【缜密的逻辑】: And that becomes very clear when we look into three aspects of city life: first, our citizens' willingness to engage with democratic institutions; second, our cities' ability to really include all of their residents; and lastly, our own ability to live fulfilling and happy lives.想要解决城市问题,城市的人民必须付出更多努力。但是,要如何实现这件事呢?取决于3点:1)城市居民参与的意愿;2)城市让居民参与的能力;3)城市居民自身的能力。
  3. 【演讲的结构】这段演讲的结构是标准的托福写作满分结构。开头段,在亮明观点的同时,概述3点理由。【全球的问题其实是城市的问题。解决城市的问题,人们需要作出更多努力。如何能实现?取决于3点:】接下来,她的每个论证段(body段)都是分别结合了这3点来展开(1)When it comes to engagement, the data is very clear.Pt老师的武功秘籍:【请注意哦!when it comes to,这里的to是介词,后边只能接名词!如果你想要接句子,很简单:when it comes to the issue + that从句 这里的issue是个名词,哎~符合要求,然后你再搞一个that从句,这不就想加你就加了么~ 同样的trick可以用在in spite of/ despite里~上过的写作小分队的童鞋,你们懂的!】(2)When it comes to inclusiveness, our cities are not the best cases of success either, and again, you don't need to look very far in order to find proof of that.(3)And lastly, perhaps most importantly, cities, with the incredible wealth of relations that they enable, could be the ideal places for human happiness to flourish. 


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